Whey should be used post workout no matter what within 30 minutes prior to exercise.
Whey Protein is absorbed by the body faster than any other protein, so thats a no brainer.
As far as carbs Maltodextrin is cheap but it isn't necessarily the best.
I usually just use a Banana or Vitargo if I have the money.
Some people will basically consume a meal post workout but I like to split it up
40-50g Whey Protein
Banana or Vitargo (2 scoops)
Then when I get home or maybe an hour later I'll have a glass of milk with some PB&J