Mixed Martial Arts Forum banner

1 - 13 of 13 Posts

·
Premium Member
Joined
·
7,199 Posts
Discussion Starter #1
If you’re a European, your body requires more vegetables and grains

A new study of hundreds of human genomes has revealed that groups in various regions of the world have evolved for diets with different amounts of meat and vegetables. People from Europe, particularly its southern regions, are optimized for a high-plant diet. But people from other areas, such as the Inuit of Greenland, have a biochemistry that is better able to process lots of meat fat.

The study, which appeared in Molecular Biology and Evolution, would not have been possible without recent advances in ancient genome sequencing. UC Berkeley integrative biology professor Rasmus Nielsen and his colleagues had access not only to hundreds of genome sequences from humans today, but also to sequences from 101 people who lived in Europe 5,000 years ago during the Bronze Age. By comparing these genomes, they found that two particular regions of DNA were under intense selection over the past several thousand years and changed rapidly in response to evolutionary pressures.

These DNA regions contain two genes called "fatty acid desaturase 1 and 2," or FADS1 and 2 for short. The FADS genes regulate how the human body converts short-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) into long-chain PUFAs for the health of many tissues, including muscles and the brain. In Europeans dating back to the Bronze Age, the FADS genes have undergone mutations to produce more long-chain PUFAs. This suggests a diet higher in vegetables and grains, which produce short-chain PUFAs. Meat produces long-chain PUFAs. The Inuit group's FADS genes are primed to produce fewer long-chain PUFAs, likely because the Inuit diet is so high in animal fats from ocean mammals.

Nielsen and his colleagues believe that the European variant of the FADS genes likely are the result of agricultural lifestyles, leading to diets rich in wheat and vegetables. When people in Europe and the Middle East began to practice farming over 10,000 years ago, suddenly they were ingesting far more of those short-chain PUFAs. People who could convert short-chain PUFAs into long-chain PUFAs efficiently were more likely to survive, and so their FADS genes were passed on.

The FADS genes are still changing, too. Nielsen told Ars via e-mail: "Of course, within the last century there have been drastic changes in the diets in many areas of Europe. Diets have typically become more caloric with a higher intake of simple sugars, and perhaps also more rich in proteins and fat from animals. So selection is unlikely to be working in exactly the same way now."

This is another nail in the coffin for the scientific validity of paleo diets, which are based on the idea that human nutritional needs haven't changed since we were primarily hunter-gatherers.

It's also likely that the FADS genes have been changing rapidly for tens of thousands of years, as humans found new environmental niches across the planet. This puts them in stark contrast with genes that allow for lactose tolerance, which are clearly linked to a rise in dairy production on farms in the West.
"The selection associated with lactase persistence (avoidance of lactose intolerance) seems to have been stronger in Northern Europe," Nielsen explained to Ars. "However, we don't see the same geographic patterns for the FADS genes. If anything, selection that would be driven by a more vegetarian diet might have been stronger in Southern Europe. Selection associated with the FADS genes might also be older than the selection affecting lactase." So there is little overlap between people with veggie-friendly FADS genes and people with genes for lactase persistence.

Nielsen and his colleagues even looked for FADS variants in Neanderthal and Denisovan genes, which are over 40,000 years old. What they found is that FADS genes appear to have been a target for natural selection in these ancient humans as well. This suggests that FADS variants pre-date the divergence of modern humans and Neanderthals, over 400,000 years ago. Or possibly it could mean that modern humans and Neanderthals both inherited the genetic variants by interbreeding with some other hominid. Nielsen called the result "odd" and admitted "we are not sure exactly what is going on."

Regardless of the explanation, we know that our genomes have responded rapidly to changes in our diets for thousands of years. We are not optimized to eat what people ate 50,000 years ago as hunter-gatherers. Instead, we are more likely to share the dietary needs of ancestors who lived only a few thousand years ago. And even what our great-grandparents ate is already affecting the FADS variants inherited by our children.
https://arstechnica.com/science/201...t-more-vegetables-several-thousand-years-ago/

Summary: Ethnicities adapted over generations to best function off of certain food sources.
 

·
The Title Guy
Joined
·
17,649 Posts
Well yeah most of the time ethnicities are concentrated in one part of the world and those climates grow various foods and animals that are unique to that part of the world. For example, rice and soy grows well in the various parts of Eastern Asia whereas corn does well in various parts of the United States. Also conditions like lactose intolerance shows it.
 

·
Premium Member
Joined
·
7,199 Posts
Discussion Starter #4
There are microbes and bacteria with short lifespans that go through multiple generations quickly enough to feed 10,000 generations of them the same food and record the effects. Over time their biology becomes better optimized for it. But they can also lose the ability to process certain food sources in the process.

...

And I think there are studies which show certain genes in food sources can be assimilated over long periods of time. Like say if a person's family ate nothing but squid for 100,000 years. Some squid DNA might show up in their DNA. After thousands of years of eating it.

There may have been a study done years and years ago that claimed some frogs developed a light form of photosynthesis after eating plant matter or algae over many multiple generations. I don't remember specifics but it was something like that.
 

·
The Title Guy
Joined
·
17,649 Posts
That is an interesting theory though that would mean that pregnant women would have to eat that stuff over generations and it would have to pass down over generations.
 

·
Premium Member
Joined
·
7,199 Posts
Discussion Starter #6
Pregnant women wouldn't have to eat it.

There's a field of study known as epigenetics that makes interesting claims on this type of thing.
 

·
The Title Guy
Joined
·
17,649 Posts
Well either way humans are constantly evolving based on the part of the world they're in. Like the Sherpas that help people on Mount Everest have evolved to have a larger lung capacity due to the high elevation they live in. I think something similar happens with the Tibetans.
 

·
Premium Member
Joined
·
7,199 Posts
Discussion Starter #8
I used to read science and medicine research.

One of the more interesting papers I saw claimed livings things had the DNA to develop arms and legs from flippers and fins. Before life evolved from an ocean going to land based role.

Some might attribute evolution to branching or development of new genes. But in some cases it could be reactivation or recombination of old and dormant genes. Which were present before anyone realized they might need them.
 

·
Premium Member
Joined
·
7,199 Posts
Discussion Starter #10
All of the good and interesting content gets buried.

Seldom to be heard or seen by normies.
 

·
Premium Member
Joined
·
7,199 Posts
Discussion Starter #12
Its like there are two separate information and media streams.

One for the 0.01% in the know.

The other for 99.9% of the population who don't know anything.
 

·
The Title Guy
Joined
·
17,649 Posts
Yeah not only that but the 99.9% are being fed half truths and fake news which results in misinformation which actually those Facebook "fact checkers" are letting most of it go. Again, the irony of claiming to be accurate but really not being accurate at all.
 
1 - 13 of 13 Posts
Top